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Middlebury-CMRS Course List

RES/1 The Making of Europe, c.400-c.1750
The autumn semester Research Course occupies the first five weeks of the program. This will allow you to research a topic of your choice from any area of European history or culture in the period c.400 to c.1750. You will identify a text or image, object or building you wish to explore (or a small group: for instance a selection of poems by a given author). You will formulate a question and write a 6,000 word essay. In order to support you, the first week will consist of lectures, seminars and field trips to get you thinking, Once you have identified the area you wish to work on, you will have weekly one-to-one meetings with an individual supervisor, who will also read and comment on your final draft. This project will help you with your tutorial writing later in our programme. It will also help you develop the research and writing skills needed for senior theses, graduate work, and similar challenges ahead. There is no obligatory preparatory reading for this course. Anything written in Europe before c.1750 that captures your imagination would be worth looking at. Working with texts in translation is expected: most of the items on the list are translations from Latin and other languages. If you do wish to work in a language other than English that is welcome, to, but this will not automatically receive a higher grade. There is no textbook for this course, and you will not be under any obligation to purchase any volumes (although you may wish to do so). The resources of the Bodleian Library, Keble College Library, and the Feneley Library will almost always suffice.

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RES/2 Europe and the World
The spring semester Research Course takes place after the term's tutorials and seminars and complete. This course is an opportunity to explore wes...

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ENAM 0830 (formerly SM/07) Shakespeare I: Shakespeare in the 1590s
Shakespeare came up to London from the country, where he had already been associated with household players, just after 1590. He entered a lively world of public performance, already marked by such major dramatic presences as Tom Kyd and Christopher Marlowe. In this, the first half of his career, he showed a readiness to turn his hand to anything. The seminar explores the variousness of this output, both comic and tragic. It also investigates Shakespeare’s enormous contribution to one craze of the 1590s, the English history play, and concludes (as it began) with Shakespeare’s contemplation of Roman history. 

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ENAM 0835 (formerly SM/18) Shakespeare II: Tragedies and Comedies
Shakespeare’s career from 1600 is renowned for its deep analysis of the human capacity for depravity and for ruin. The seminar examines this increa...

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ENAM 0980 (formerly SM/10) The Inklings
The constellation of talents known collectively as the ‘Inklings’ met regularly in Oxford between the 1920s and 1950s.  Comprising scholars, poe...

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HARC 0830 (formerly SM/02) Cathedrals, Cloisters , Churches: Machines for Praying, c1050-1350
The Church was deeply embedded in the medieval European nexus of patronage, culture and power.  This has left us much of the world’s most wonderfu...

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HARC 0850 (formerly SM/01) The Italian Renaissance
It is in the world of the visual arts and architecture that the spectacular cultural phenomenon known as the Renaissance first found expression in fo...

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HIST 0825/CMLT 0825/LITS 0825 (formerly SM/32) Vikings, Saxons and Heroic Culture
This seminar course explores early medieval heroic culture and beliefs from northern and western Europe, as presented in both older and later (West a...

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HIST 0831 / LITS 0831 / ENAM 0831 (formerly SM/03) Chivalry and Courtly Love
This seminar explores themes of chivalry and courtly love in the literature and cultures of medieval western Europe, and their subsequent impact on m...

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HIST 0840 (formerly SM/30) Magic and the Occult in Western Europe, 1500-1800
This course covers what are arguably the most important centuries in the history of European magic, from the late Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, t...

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HIST 0915 / RELI 0915 Christianity and Warfare in the Middle Ages
This course explores two central elements in medieval western European society: warfare and Christianity.  It covers the period from the late eighth...

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HIST 0930 (formerly SM/34) The Reign of Henry VIII
Henry VIII (reigned 1509 to 1547) remains one of the best-known and most controversial monarchs in British history.  His religious policies (especia...

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HIST 0940 (formerly SM/33) Revolutions and the Making of Modern Britain
The "Glorious" Revolution of 1688 expelled the Catholic line of the Stuarts from Britain, but it has also been seen as opening up a new era in polit...

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HIST 0955 (formerly SM/31) The Making of the Islamic World, c.600 - c.1300
Over a period of roughly one century after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in Medina in 632, Muslim armies conquered an enormous swathe of territor...

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HIST 0980 (formerly SM/37) Imperial China c.600 - c.1650
This seminar course is intended for students who want to learn about Chinese cultural and political history between the Sui Dynasty and the Manchu ta...

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PSCI 0810 (formerly SM/08) Political Philosophy I: Plato to Machiavelli
The purpose of this course is to show how thinkers have analysed and justified the role and existence of the state, and to consider various theories ...

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PSCI 0815 (formerly SM/20) Political Philosophy, II: Ockham to Locke
Late medieval and Renaissance political thinkers answered questions which have a familiar ring: is it ever justified to overthrow a tyrant? Is a regi...

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RELI 0870/HIST 0870 /CLAS 0870 (formerly SM/36) Religion in Late Antiquity: Live Forever or Die Trying
This seminar explores religion in late antique Mediterranean, a period which saw a great variety of pagan, Jewish and Christian practices.   It cent...

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ARBC 0010 Arabic
Tutorials are available in both Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic. The nature of the tutorial will depend on the level and needs of each individual student.

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HARC 0010 Archaeology & Prehistory
Archaeology has an arsenal of methods and theories with which to explore prehistoric peoples. Drawing on worldwide examples, this course explores the ways in which archaeological data is acquired and analysed as a means of surveying the structures and evolution of societies without writing.

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HARC 0015 Archaeology in Britain I: Antiquity to High Middle Ages
Britain in this period was settled by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, Celts, Romans, Saxons, Scandinavians and Normans. This course investigates the picture of their lives gained from modern archaeology. We also explore the theory and practice of how material evidence relates to written sources.

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HARC 0020 Archaeology in Britain II: Late Middle Ages & Renaissance
Our knowledge of life in Britain from the 14th to the 16th centuries has been greatly enlarged by modern archaeology and from the close study of surviving towns, villages and buildings. We thus explore the contribution that a study of material culture can make to the understanding of societies which have writing.

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HARC 0025 Archaeology of Britain III: Into the Modern World
In the period from c. 1600 to 1850, Britain was transformed into a recognizable complex, modern society. This course explores how a wide range of archaeological techniques and theory can elucidate these changes in countryside and town, and how this evidence relates to that drawn from written sources.

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HARC 0050 Classical Art and Architecture
The classical language of form, proportion and ornament is studied first in the elegant temples and theatres of ancient Greece, and later in the urban architecture of the Roman world. The Graeco-Roman aesthetic is illustrated through the media of sculpture, ceramics and wall-painting. The Ashmolean Museum (in central Oxford) houses a fine collection of antique sculpture providing an excellent resource for first-hand study.

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HARC 0060 Art & Architecture of Late Antiquity
This course explores the art and architecture of the late Roman world, with a particular focus on the eastern Mediterranean, from the second to the eighth centuries. The changing needs and aspirations of the Roman state had a major impact on artistic change, as did Christianity, especially after its adoption by the Emperor Constantine I (died 337). The magnificent Hagia Sophia, built under the Emperor Justinian I (527-565), encapsulates many of the themes of this course.

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HARC 0070 Early Medieval Art & Architecture
This course focuses on the art and architecture of Early Medieval Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire to the end of the tenth century. Throughout this period the sources and influence on art and architecture were rich and varied. With style and patronage as the dominate themes, the period starts by examining classical precedents, continues  with the art of the so-called Migration period, including insular art of the British Isles, covers the Carolingian Renaissance associated with Charlemagne, and culminates in the art and architecture of the Ottonian period, all of which laid important foundations for the burgeoning Romanesque. 

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HARC 0073 Romanesque Art and Architecture
In the approximately two centuries covered by this course (between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries), there was a rich outpouring of artistic ac...

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HARC 0075 Gothic Art and Architecture
Famed for soaring arches, rich stained glass, fine sculpture, stunning manuscripts and elaborate wall-paintings, the Gothic style spread throughout Europe from the mid-twelfth century onwards. This course traces developments down to the early sixteenth century with particular reference to France and England but also Germany. The buildings studied range from the cathedrals at Reims and Chartres and Notre Dame in France, Cologne cathedral, to Westminster Abbey, the Divinity School in Oxford, and a number of cathedrals in England. During this period some exquisite illuminated manuscripts were produced in bright colours and burnished gold, ranging from Books of Beasts to courtly Books of Hours.

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HARC 0080 Early Italian Renaissance
Between 1300 and 1500, the sculptor Donatello, the architects Brunelleschi, Alberti and Michelozzo as well as painters such as Giotto, Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Botticelli, brought about a transformation in art and architecture which we now call the Renaissance. With an emphasis on stylistic, technical and iconographic developments, and with its origins in the classical past, this transformation is charted from its beginnings in the art of Giotto to its full expression in the fifteenth century. The Ashmolean Museum and Christ Church galleries in Oxford, which have representative examples of painting in this period, make it possible to study original Renaissance works of art.

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HARC 0085 Italian High and Late Renaissance
Sixteenth-century Florence, Rome and Venice are rightly renowned for their riches of architecture, sculpture and painting. With particular attention to Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Palladio and Titian, this course examines that wealth and the Mannerist reaction to it. The course begins by examining the so-called High Renaissance of the earlier part of the sixteenth century when classical balance and harmony were achieved, through scientific means such as perspective and anatomical studies, to the breakdown of these rules in the subsequent period and the emergence of ‘Mannerist’ elements. Magdalene College, Oxford, possesses an important early copy of Leonardo da Vinci’s ‘Last Supper’ and the National Gallery, London, houses many important works covering the entire period.

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HARC 0090 The Northern Renaissance
This course covers the flowering of northern European art during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.  Contrasting with Italian art of the period but providing a unique approach, Northern artists aimed to mirror reality by a minute study of nature. Works of Flemish, Dutch and German painters are studied, including Jan van Eyck, who reinvented the technique of oil painting, Rogier van der Weyden whose paintings are full of pathos, the mysterious works of Hieronymus Bosch and the genre painting of Pieter Bruegel. German art enters a new phase with the art of Albrecht Dürer and Lucas Cranach who as well as embracing ‘Northern’ ideals were affected by the Renaissance art of Italy. The National Gallery, London, is an excellent repository for works of art of this period.   

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HARC 0095 Seventeenth-Century Dutch Painting
This course covers the phase in art referred to as the ‘Golden Age’ of Dutch painting, characterised for developing still life and landscape subjects as well as portrait and genre painting. Extraordinary for its various intense visions of human nature, landscape and light, the paintings of key exponents of seventeenth-century Dutch painting, such as Rembrandt, Vermeer and Ruisdael, can be studied in the National Gallery, London, with some examples in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The works of these artists are evaluated within an historical and cultural context.

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HARC 0100 Baroque Art & Architecture
A study of the impact of the Counter-Reformation on the style of art, sculpture and architecture, with special attention to Italian and Spanish painters such as Tintoretto, Caravaggio, El Greco and Velazquez, the sculptor Bernini, and the architect, Borromini.  It will also consider the manifestation of Baroque in Britain. Baroque is often classified as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated movement and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance and grandeur in sculpture, painting and architecture. English Baroque art and architecture can be studied at the magnificent Blenheim Palace at Woodstock, close to Oxford, and there are works by Tintoretto in the Ashmolean Museum. There are also important buildings associated with Oxford University, designed by Wren and Hawksmoor. 

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HARC 0110 English Architecture, 1530-1790
This course studies the development of English architectural style and building practice from Henry VIII to George III, with examples from town and country houses, palaces, cathedrals and collegiate buildings. Emphasis is given to the work of Smythson, Jones, Wren, Vanbrugh, Hawksmoor and Adam.  Students in this tutorial can also draw on their observations of buildings in Oxford.

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HARC 0120 Painting in Britain, 1530-1790
This course studies the development and flowering of British painting between c.1530 and c.1790, and the work and influence of foreign-born painters. This period covers painting by artists such Holbein, Hilliard and Oliver, who worked for the Tudor courts of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. The art of Charles I and Charles II is illustrated by artists such as Van Dyck, Lely and Kneller, who specialised in large-scale portraits of the ruling monarchs and the aristocracy, a trend which was further manifested in the later period by Reynolds and Gainsborough. At the end of the period the unique satirical and moralising paintings of Hogarth are studied. The Ashmolean Museum in central Oxford holds works by most of these artists.

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HARC 0125 Architecture and Painting in Britain, 1790-1830
This course explores British art and architecture in the Romantic era and the early industrial revolution. Architects include Soane and Nash, and also Cockerell who designed the splendid Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, which houses many examples of artists’ work relevant to this phase of British art. In this period landscape painting came to the fore, represented by contrasting approaches such as that of Constable who explored the visible world, Turner who conjured up poetic moods, and Palmer who used landscape in a mystical form. Set against these are the visionary creations of William Blake and the bold portraiture of Lawrence who painted leading figures of the day.

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HARC 0140 Art of the Garden
This course studies the history of gardens and parks in Europe from the middle ages to the early nineteenth century. Topics include: castle gardens, monasteries and colleges; physick and botanic gardens; the formal park; the classical style of the eighteenth century; the English tradition of Brown and Repton. Oxford and the surrounding contain some gardens from this era, which students can explore, notably the Botanical Gardens.

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HARC 0150 Art of the Enlightenment
From the 1650s to the 1780s, the cultural and intellectual forces of the Enlightenment in western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism, rather than traditional forms of authority, such as those imposed by the Catholic church. This course illustrates how these precepts were manifested in the art and architecture of the period, exploring such masters as Canaletto, Friedrich, David, Greuze, Watteau, Ingres and Wright of Derby. Relevant works can be seen in the Ashmolean Museum and nearby Waddeston Manor with its world class collection. This whole period, featuring art of the Grand Tour, can be further evaluated by visits to the London galleries.

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HARC 0155 Architecture and Painting in the Victorian Age
This course traces the development of British architecture and painting from the 1830s to the end of the nineteenth century. The works of Giles Gilbert Scott, Butterfield, Pearson, the Pre-Raphaelites, Landseer and Leighton are considered, as well as the influence of Pugin, Ruskin and Morris.  Oxford is particularly rich in buildings and artefacts that relate to this phase in art, from the architecture of the University Museum, the stained glass of the chapel of Manchester College, to the murals of the Union building, the architecture and interior design of the Randolph Hotel, and the fine collection of Pre-Raphaelite paintings in the Ashmolean Museum.

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HARC 0160 Modern British Art
This course covers British art from c.1900 to c.1960.  Otassesses the avant-garde works of the Bloomsbury group, the Vorticists and Surrealists who responded to Continental developments, yet created something uniquely British. It includes the poignant paintings of the First World War by Paul Nash, Nevinson, Roberts, and Wadsworth, as well as the pacifist Stanley Spencer. Abstract art is assessed through the work of the sculptors Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth and the painted reliefs of Ben Nicholson. The course culminates in an evaluation of Abstract Expressionism and Pop art, both under the influence of America. The Tate Gallery in London is of major importance for those opting for course covering many innovative British artists.

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HARC 0180 Images of Oxford
Oxford has a unique assemblage of paintings, sculptures, buildings and

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HIST 0270 Culture and Society in Later Renaissance Italy
In the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries the Italian peninsula saw war, pestilence, political revolution, profound economic and social disruption; but also truly outstanding developments in scholarship, art and literature. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo (to name only two) would have been remarkable in any age, but their achievements were founded on the wealth, wars, patronage and politics of Medici, popes and French kings. In recovering the learning of the classical world and in developing new ways of thinking about the individual, 'his' place in the world and how that world was to be governed, scholars and writers were also very much driven by contemporary imperatives and needs. This course allows students to use primary sources of this era (including texts in translation) to explore the Later Italian Renaissance.

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CLAS 0130 Augustus to Hadrian
This course explores the history of the Roman Empire from the first emperor, Augustus (died 14AD), until Hadrian (117-138AD).  It considers politica...

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CLAS 0020 The Classical World: Alexander to Rome

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CLAS 0030 Ancient Greek Literature
The course investigates the literature and culture of fifth-century Athens. Central concerns of this era – freedom and power, knowledge and virtue, law and nature, and the role of the divine – are studied through an analysis of history (Herodotus, Thucydides), tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides), comedy (Aristophanes), and philosophy (Plato).

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CLAS 0040 Greek Tragedy
An examination of selected tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, against the background of debates about freedom and empire in fifth-century BC Athens. The course studies the use of ancient myths to illuminate contemporary Athenian attitudes towards relations between the sexes, between the family and the city, and between humans and gods.

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CLAS 0050 Classical Epic
The classical epic tradition helped shape Greece and Rome, and remains a landmark in European civilization. The course provides a detailed analysis of Homer’s

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CLAS 0060 Classical Lyric
This course investigates the growth of lyric verse in Greek and Latin literature, examining poetry by Sappho, Pindar, Catullus, Horace and others, in the formation of an aesthetic intended to charm, beguile and celebrate the well-lived life, rather than instruct or elevate in the high-minded civic sense.

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CLAS 0070 Classical Pastoral
This course explores the origins of the western pastoral tradition, by looking at those whom the English Renaissance poet Drayton called its ‘onlie begetters’. Greek poets include Theocritus, Bion and Moschus; their Latin counterparts Virgil and Calpurnius Siculus. This was the legacy which was bequeathed to the Renaissance pastoralists.

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CLAS 0090 Literature and Culture in the Roman Republic
The long history of the Roman Republic (c.509 to 31 BC) saw the development of Rome from a small provincial city to the supreme power in the Mediterranean, and this was matched by the evolution of Latin literature. The course examines the writing of the era in a number of genres: comedy (Plautus and Terence), lyric (Catullus), epic (Ennius), oratory and letters (Cicero), history (Polybius, Caesar, Sallust) and philosophy (Lucretius).

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CLAS 0110 Athens, Sparta, Persia
This course explores the history of the Greek states - especially Athens and Sparta - during the fifth century BCE.  This was a period of political rivalry and experimentation within Greece, and a series of confrontations and/or negotiations with the massive might of the Persian Empire.

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CLAS 0120 Republic to Principate
This course examines the history of Roman state and society from the final decades of the republic to the establishment of Augustus’s regime.  This was a period of tremendous social, political and military confrontations, as the republic overcame external opponents, while consuming itself in internal conflict. It also saw tremendous intellectual creativity, and students are able to explore writings (in translation) by public figures such as Cicero, Caesar and Sallust. 

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CLAS 0200 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek is offered at every level, including beginners.  It involves the study of grammar, syntax and readings from classical Greek literature.  The precise nature of the tutorial will depend on the skills and needs of each individual student.

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CLAS 0250 New Testament Greek
This course covers the grammar, syntax and vocabulary of New Testament Greek.  It is possible to take this at any language level, including beginner.  Students’ level will be assessed as part of the pre-arrival process.

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CLAS 0300 Classical Latin
This course involved the careful study of grammar, syntax and readings from classical Latin literature.  It is possible to take this at any language level, including beginner.  Students’ level will be assessed as part of the pre-arrival process.

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ENAM 0245/GSFS 0245 Women & Literature in the English Renaissance
This course examines women writers of the English Renaissance, with reference to elsewhere in Europe.  

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CLAS 0110 Athens, Sparta, Persia
This course explores the history of the Greek states - especially Athens and Sparta - during the fifth century BCE.  This was a period of political rivalry and experimentation within Greece, and a series of confrontations and/or negotiations with the massive might of the Persian Empire.

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HARC 0015 Archaeology in Britain I: Antiquity to High Middle Ages
Britain in this period was settled by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, Celts, Romans, Saxons, Scandinavians and Normans. This course investigates the picture of their lives gained from modern archaeology. We also explore the theory and practice of how material evidence relates to written sources.

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HARC 0020 Archaeology in Britain II: Late Middle Ages & Renaissance
Our knowledge of life in Britain from the 14th to the 16th centuries has been greatly enlarged by modern archaeology and from the close study of surviving towns, villages and buildings. We thus explore the contribution that a study of material culture can make to the understanding of societies which have writing.

  Read more...

HARC 0025 Archaeology of Britain III: Into the Modern World
In the period from c. 1600 to 1850, Britain was transformed into a recognizable complex, modern society. This course explores how a wide range of archaeological techniques and theory can elucidate these changes in countryside and town, and how this evidence relates to that drawn from written sources.

  Read more...

HARC 0070 Early Medieval Art & Architecture
This course focuses on the art and architecture of Early Medieval Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire to the end of the tenth century. Throughout this period the sources and influence on art and architecture were rich and varied. With style and patronage as the dominate themes, the period starts by examining classical precedents, continues  with the art of the so-called Migration period, including insular art of the British Isles, covers the Carolingian Renaissance associated with Charlemagne, and culminates in the art and architecture of the Ottonian period, all of which laid important foundations for the burgeoning Romanesque. 

  Read more...

HARC 0073 Romanesque Art and Architecture
In the approximately two centuries covered by this course (between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries), there was a rich outpouring of artistic ac...

  Read more...

HARC 0075 Gothic Art and Architecture
Famed for soaring arches, rich stained glass, fine sculpture, stunning manuscripts and elaborate wall-paintings, the Gothic style spread throughout Europe from the mid-twelfth century onwards. This course traces developments down to the early sixteenth century with particular reference to France and England but also Germany. The buildings studied range from the cathedrals at Reims and Chartres and Notre Dame in France, Cologne cathedral, to Westminster Abbey, the Divinity School in Oxford, and a number of cathedrals in England. During this period some exquisite illuminated manuscripts were produced in bright colours and burnished gold, ranging from Books of Beasts to courtly Books of Hours.

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HIST 0095 Romans and Barbarians, 370-750
The crumbling of a mighty empire which had proclaimed itself universal, and supreme even in spiritual matters, has provided a rewarding theme for historians and moralists for centuries; nonetheless, recent years have seen a great increase in scholarly interest in the sub- and post-Roman world. The sparse and intriguing written sources have been supplemented with insights from archaeology, material culture, and a range of other disciplines. As a result students can discover much more about the huge changes (and remarkable continuities) of this extraordinary period than was possible a generation ago; but because of the comparative paucity of the sources they can engage in the scholarly debate for themselves at a depth that is difficult in other eras.

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HIST 0100 The Byzantine World, 1071-1204
As it spans the period from disastrous defeat at the Battle of Manzikert to the catastrophic sack of Constantinople by Fourth Crusaders, it would be easy to characterize this course as exploring an era of decline and decay in the Byzantine Empire. The real picture, however, is more complex and nuanced, and includes political, military, cultural and religious highs as well as lows.  For example, ‘the Empire of the Romans’ exercised great influence over a ‘Byzantine Commonwealth’ in the Balkans, while relations with the states set up by Western crusaders in the Levant remained problematic.  A substantial body of primary texts in translation allows students to tackle all these fascinating issues head-on for themselves.

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HIST 0105 Byzantium 1204-1453
The capture of Constantinople by the forces of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 initiated one of the most fascinating periods of Byzantine history.  A Western Catholic (‘Latin’) emperor was set up in the capital, yet much territory remained under the effective control of Greek polities. In 1261 the Latins were themselves driven out of the capital by Michael VIII Palaiologos, whose dynasty then reigned until Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1453. In some ways the Empire never recovered from the fragmentation of 1204 and it also faced new challenges from East and West; yet this was also an era of political and cultural creativity.

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HIST 0110 Carolingian Europe
Charlemagne (King of the Franks from 768, Emperor from 800, died 814) was the most militarily and politically successful ruler in western Europe since the fall of the western Roman Empire.  He also presided over a period of distinct religious, intellectual and artistic creativity. This tutorial explores the world of Charlemagne and his dynasty, the Carolingians.

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HIST 0120 Knights, Priests, Peasants
This course uses primary sources in translation to sketch medieval society, not least the ‘Three Orders’ of ‘labourers, fighters and men of prayer’.

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HIST 0130 Heresy and Authority in the Middle Ages
This course explores the twin phenomena of heresy and ecclesiastical authority in medieval western Europe.  This era saw the development of a series of Christian communities which came to reject (or were rejected by) the official church.  These included the Waldensians, the Humiliati and the Cathars, as well as more transient groups around specific individuals such as Henry of Lausanne.  Some intellectual figures were also caught up in accusations of heresy, for instance Peter Abelard.  At the same time, the official church became more anxious about identifying and correcting deviant Christian beliefs and practices.  This led to the development of pastoral care, and also the Inquisition and the Albigensian Crusade. The course concentrates on the period from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries, but this is prefaced by examining the definitions of orthodoxy and heresy in Late Antiquity and the early middle ages, which continued to shape attitudes for centuries to come.

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HIST 0135 Christians and Jews in the Middle Ages
This tutorial examines interactions between the Christian majority and their Jewish neighbours in western Europe during the middle ages.  This period has been characterised with reference to violence and persecution such as the massacres of First Crusade (1096), and a series of expulsions from the thirteenth century onwards.  However, a more nuanced story emerges from consideration of both Jewish and Christian sources, which allow us to explore a range of possible interaction, ranging from theological debate among elite intellectuals, to everyday social, economic and cultural experience.

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HIST 0140 Occult Sciences in the Middle Ages
Many medieval people held and practised beliefs which today we would label occult, magical or esoteric. At the learned level, Platonic, Hermetic, Islamic and Kabbalistic ideas were profoundly influential, but less intellectual inspirations and needs were also deeply at work.  The results are evident not only in ‘magical’, astrological and alchemical texts as such, but also in religious, philosophical, legal, literary and artistic works. Other disciplines are drawn on freely as required, but the core of students’ work in this course is in exploring the testimony of these rich and allusive primary sources (in translation) for themselves.

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HIST 0145 Deviance, Sexuality & Social Order in Medieval Europe
Medieval western Christendom saw the evolution of a remarkable set of gendered social norms, and (arguably) of increasingly restrictive means of maintaining them. This course uses insights drawn from a range of disciplines to explore medieval attitudes to gender, sexuality, and ‘outsiders’.

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HIST 0150 The Islamic World, c.600-c.1300
This tutorial explores Islamic history from the life of the Prophet Muhammad in the early seventh century, until the Mongol invasions of the thirteenth century.  This was a period marked by the dramatic expansion of Islamic political control, as Muslim armies conquered an enormous swathe of territory extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to Central Asia in the east. At the same time the first Islamic empire was formed by the Umayyad dynasty, who were then overthrown and replaced with the Abbasid dynasty in 750. The Abbasids in turn were succeeded by a number of other dynasties, formed by Arabs, Persians, Turks and others.  The nature of Islamic politics and society was not static: possible tutorial topics include the role of political legitimacy, dynastic politics, economic life (including coinage), urban life, and military organisation.

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HIST 0190 The Crusades
Between the Council of Clermont in 1095 and the final collapse of western holdings in the Levant at the end of the thirteenth, thousands of western European Christians ‘took the Cross’ to ‘liberate the Holy Places from the infidel’. The uttermost heights of piety combined with the very worst kinds of violence, greed and ambition; both Christendom and the geo-politics of the Mediterranean were transformed; and crusading ideology spread far beyond its original target. The combination of huge, fundamental and still topical issues; a wealth of engaging Latin, Byzantine and Islamic sources (in translation); and a lively set of historiographical debates make the Crusades one of the most fascinating topics in medieval history.  

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HIST 0210/RELI 0210 Medieval Monasticism
This course examines medieval monasticism in religious and historical context. From origins in late antiquity, monasticism became one of the central expressions of medieval Christianity.   The ‘long twelfth century’ was an especially important period, as international  monastic orders such as the Carthusians and Cistercians developed for the first time. Monks and nuns sought to renounce the temptations of the material world by withdrawing into lives of poverty and celibacy.  They were distinct from wider Christian society, yet also focal points for lay devotion,  Major monasteries became important centres of political and economic power.  Many of the most important intellectual figures of the middle ages were monks or nuns.  Students are able to use the numerous sources (in translation) produced by and about medieval monasticism, as well as the rich modern scholarship on the subject. 

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HIST 0260 Culture and Society in Early Renaissance Italy
This course explores Italy in the period c.1290-1400. Even before the first onslaught of the Black Death in the 1340s carried off between a third and a half of the population, this was an era of profound and complex change in the Italian peninsula. In cities such as Florence, Padua and Siena fundamental political alteration spurred an extraordinary burst of creativity in literature, the arts, and political and financial institutions, as well as great conflict and startling violence.  Statesmen, writers and artists found new ways of expressing old and new emotions, aspirations and desires, in language, ceremonial, painting, sculpture and architecture.  In this course, students study an era which not only gave western culture many of its ‘greats’, but also brings them face-to-face with the troubling relationships between conflict and creativity, violence and vision.

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HIST 0270 Culture and Society in Later Renaissance Italy
In the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries the Italian peninsula saw war, pestilence, political revolution, profound economic and social disruption; but also truly outstanding developments in scholarship, art and literature. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo (to name only two) would have been remarkable in any age, but their achievements were founded on the wealth, wars, patronage and politics of Medici, popes and French kings. In recovering the learning of the classical world and in developing new ways of thinking about the individual, 'his' place in the world and how that world was to be governed, scholars and writers were also very much driven by contemporary imperatives and needs. This course allows students to use primary sources of this era (including texts in translation) to explore the Later Italian Renaissance.

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HIST 0280 Reformation Europe
This course explores the impact of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation on sixteenth-century European culture and society. It uses texts from the period (in translation), as well as visual sources, and the rich modern scholarship, to explore changes in religion, society and politics.  

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HIST 0290 Witches in Early Modern Europe
Early modern Europe saw some 40,000 people die because their neighbours or the authorities believed them to be consorts of the Devil or capable of harnessing unearthly powers to harm others. Belief in widespread witchcraft thus coexisted with the rationalities of the Renaissance and the devotion of the Reformations. This provides students with a fascinating and rewarding angle from which to dissect early modern societies, their elites and peoples, mindsets and emotions, as well as the powerful religious, social and economic tensions at work within them.  Guided by a remarkably rich set of modern scholarly responses, and insights from anthropological, literary, psychoanalytical, economic and gender studies, students can explore the huge variety and wealth of surviving contemporary sources from trial accounts through learned tracts and sermons to visual arts and plays.

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HIST 0300 Historical Approaches
This tutorial explores the ways in which modern historians have approached their discipline.  When history became part of the university curriculum in the late nineteenth century, the focus was on high politics and law, usually in the context of European nation states.  Since then the interests and methodologies of historians have widened considerably, often in conversation with other disciplines.  Sample topics include the impact of Marxism, the Annales school, feminism, post-colonial studies, anthropology, economics, literary and social theory.

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HIST 0400 Anglo-Saxon England
This course covers the period from end of Roman Britain in early fifth century, to the Norman Conquest of 1066. 

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HIST 0405 England after the Conquest
This course examines the political, ecclesiastical and social history of England from the Norman Conquest (1066) to the early thirteenth century. This period saw the establishment of Norman rule, which brought England’s elite into a French political and cultural world.  The loss of Normandy and most of the English kings’ other French possessions in 1204 was thus an important rupture.  This era witnessed major developments in economic life, urbanisation, and the expression of Christianity.  Relations with the rest of the British Isles also changed dramatically, and often violently.  The twelfth century also saw a flowering of historical scholarship. Sources include Orderic Vitalis, Henry of Huntingdon and William of Malmesbury.

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HIST 0410 Later Medieval England
When the seven- year-old Henry III ascended his father’s throne in 1216, much of his kingdom was under French occupation; a peace treaty between the Crown and the political classes had failed disastrously; and all seemed close to collapse. When Henry VII died in 1509 he left a fully treasury; an administration run on the most modern (and rapacious) lines; a country where humanism was taking root; a prosperous and much loved English Church; and few signs of a resurgence of the sporadic civil war which had bedevilled England between 1455 and 1485.  Amongst the key themes which students might explore in this course are: the development of political institutions capable of managing relations between kings and those they ruled (most famously ‘parliament’); relations with France and England’s other neighbours; the development of the economy; the impact of disease; and the flourishing of vernacular literature.

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HIST 0415 Tudor England
This course explores English history during the reign of the Tudor dynasty: Henry VII, his son Henry VIII, and grandchildren Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I.  This period is best-known for the dramas of dynastic history, and the highly-contested establishment of the Church of England.  It also saw tremendous intellectual and cultural creativity, and crucial developments in trade and industry.  Further afield, relations with the rest of the British Isles, and with continental European powers, along with the beginnings of England’s global role, will also be examined.

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HIST 0430 Liberty and Monarchy in the Seventeenth Century
Seventeenth-century England saw remarkable tensions between supporters of absolute monarchy at one extreme and advocates of the liberty of the subject (often ‘the freeborn Englishman’) at the other.  Failure to resolve these tensions arguably plunged the British Isles into Civil War, regicide and Revolution; it certainly produced some of the most imaginative, wide-ranging, varied and enduring contributions to political thinking.  Ideals ranging from universal suffrage democracy to the Divine Right of Kings, from theocracy to democracy were all advocated. Students explore seventeenth-century relationships between political ideas and political action in their own right, but also the formation of a political discourse which continues to be deeply influential on both sides of the Atlantic.

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HIST 0440 Glorious Revolution to American Revolution
This tutorial examines British history during the long eighteenth century, 

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HIST 0450 Nineteenth-Century British History
The nineteenth century has been viewed as the apogee of British power.  In this period Britain came to control a major empire, as a leading industrial, commercial and military power.  This was also a crucial period in the development of British science and culture.  These crucial themes are examined in this tutorial.  However, a 'triumphalist' narrative does not encapsulate the experience of many people within nineteenth-century Britain, and those affected by the British imperial project overseas.  Thus this tutorial also considers broader social developments in homes, workplaces, streets, and institutions such as schools and churches.

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HIST 0460 Twentieth-Century British History
This tutorial explores British history during the twentieth century.  At the beginning of the period, Britain was one of the world's leading political and economic powers, and the centre of a global empire.  This changed dramatically over the course of the century, in part due to dramatic factors such as two world wars, and the end of British control over most of Ireland, but also through more gradual social, economic and cultural changes. Potential tutorial topics include imperialism and decolonisation; Britain and Ireland; electoral politics; changing gender roles; the welfare state; consumerism; Britain's relationship with Europe and the Commonwealth. 

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HIST 0500 The Atlantic World
This course explores the Atlantic world, from the fifteenth century to the nineteenth century.  This was a period shaped by factors that defined the modern world, such as exploration, colonialism, religious mission, and slavery.  In many ways the non-European societies around the Atlantic were victims of European expansion, but they were also able to exercise agency in this changing world.  At one stage the histories of Europe, Africa and the Americas were artificially divided, but their most important developments can only be understood in the context of the Atlantic world as a whole.

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HIST 0501 New World Encounters
From the fifteenth century onwards, European merchants, monarchs and writers became increasingly excited by the world beyond the Atlantic Ocean.  It seemed to offer abundant opportunities for fame, fortune and adventure; the possibility of escape from oppression; and perhaps the chance to start afresh.  But, as the initial isolated voyages were succeeded by European settlement and a more regular commerce and interaction with the inhabitants of the Americas, the reality was often one of disease, death and disaster.  Indigenous cultures and civilizations were devastated, and Europe transformed. Students thus encounter resonant questions, and a body of fascinating first-hand sources, which have generated a lively and engaging historiography.

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HIST 0520 Copernicus to Newton
The ‘Scientific Revolution’ of the early modern era was so broad and profound that some scholars have suggested that it did nothing less than transform the world. This course approached these claims by exploring in detail the contribution of several key thinkers, writers and polemicists most noted for their contributions to the modern fields of astronomy, cosmology, physics, optics and mathematics.

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HIST 0530 Seventeenth-Century Europe
Seventeenth-century Europe saw great violence and destruction, but also intellectual and technological creativity that in many ways laid the foundations of the modern world. Confrontations between Catholicism and various strands of Protestantism culminated in the Thirty Years War, which engulfed Germany, and brought in many other European powers, between 1618 and 1648. France was at the apogee of its political and cultural might under Louis XIV (1643-1715), encapsulated in Baroque art and architecture. Europe engaged with the rest of the world through trade, exploration and colonialism, from the Ottoman Empire, to Spanish America, to the Dutch in south-east Asia. The intellectual sphere saw the scientific revolution and the early enlightenment, as witnessed for instance in the work of Gallileo, Spinoza and Descartes.

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HIST 0540 Enlightenment Europe
The eighteenth century in Europe was an age of Enlightenment although not necessarily an enlightened age. European commercial empires spread around the globe, driven by an expanding market for consumer goods like sugar, tobacco and tea. These goods were often produced by slave labor, and the trade in African slaves peaked during the period. At the same time, European intellectuals had never been more strident in asserting the benefits of liberty and toleration. The established Churches struggled to maintain their influence over populations that were increasingly affected by urbanisation, manufacturing and other challenges to long-established ways of life. The revolutions of the late 1700s in the Low Countries and France marked the start of a political transformation inspired in part by the consequences of social and cultural change.

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HIST 0550 Revolutionary Europe
This course explores European history during the nineteenth century.  Between the French Revolution of 1789 and the 1871 Paris Commune, Europe was shaken by a series of political, social, economic and cultural revolutions. The emergence of national identities, the impact of industrialism and the erosion of old hierarchical structures were among the contributors to this instability. No aspect of traditional society, from monarchy and religious orthodoxy to farming techniques and family patriarchy, remained unquestioned. After 1871 and the unifications of Germany and Italy, the internal peace of Europe seemed to have been re-established under conservative governments. Europe's economic and political dominance over the rest of the world was solidified in this period through the expansion of global empires. Beneath the appearance of stability, however, the sources of new upheavals continued to grow, both within Europe itself and in the European colonies around the world.

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HIST 0700 Gender & History
Recent scholars have increasingly made a gendered reading of history; this course samples and assesses the success of these approaches while exploring the nature, development and contestation of societies’ gender norms, leading models of change, and key methodological issues. Issues include work, political change, religion, culture and sexuality, with a focus on the modern world.  

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HST/14 The Golden Age of the Aristocracy, 1660 to 1832
The Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 also ushered in an era of unprecedented power, wealth and display for the English aristocracy. Ferocity of po...

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HST/21 Man and the Natural World
Modern scholars have hailed the quickening of ‘natural philosophy’ in the era from the Renaissance to the nineteenth century as nothing less than...

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PSCI 0011 Western Political Thought
This course explores central themes in the history of western political thought, from Plato to Rousseau.  It focuses on the major works by key thinkers. This allows key themes (such as justice, the nature of the state, citizenship, and the role of religion) to be explored across the long-term development of western political thought.

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PSCI 0020 Classical Political Thought
This course covers the political thought of the ancient world, from Classical Athens to the Roman Empire.  This period saw the formulation of fundamental elements in political thought: the state, justice, citizenship, notions of democracy, aristocracy and monarchy, and the concept of politics in itself. At the end of the period, Augustine of Hippo integrated elements of classical political thought into his Christian theology. Key thinkers are explored with reference to their historical and intellectual context.

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PSCI 0030 Ancient and Medieval Political Thought
This course explores the development of western political thought from its Greek foundations through to the late Middle Ages. A historical overview of the progress of central political concepts is allied to a close reading of particular authors, with reference to the ways in which political thought related to broader philosophical, cultural and religious concerns.

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PSCI 0040 Renaissance Political Thought
This course presents a detailed historical survey of political thinking in the Renaissance. It was during this period that many important and influential political concepts, such as virtue, liberty, equality, power, republics, kingship, and tyranny began to assume the forms that remain familiar to us today. The course analyses the philosophical underpinnings of those concepts, their historical contexts and development, and their changing constellations.

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PSCI 0050 Enlightenment Political Thought
The legacy of Enlightenment thinkers has left an indelible mark on Western political thinking. This course aims to introduce students to the main intellectual and political currents of the Enlightenment. It begins with an analysis of philosophical and political rationalism. It examines debates pertaining to concepts such as rights, obligations, power, progress, refinement, liberty, equality and political sovereignty. It traces the development of political ideas and practices through the eighteenth century and shows how Enlightenment political thought served as the impulse to the political radicalism of revolutionary Europe.

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PSCI 0060 Nineteenth-Century Political Thought
The legacy of nineteenth-century political thought is long and enduring, having shaped the contours of twentieth and twenty-first-century political theory and practice. This course examines nineteenth-century political thought. It explores how the advent of democracy, and the competing visions of it, shaped fundamentally the preoccupations of nineteenth-century political thinkers defining the way they understood concepts such as equality, liberty, popular sovereignty, tyranny, and revolution.

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RELI 0030 The Early Church
By the time of Council of Chalcedon in 451 the followers of Jesus of Nazareth, initially a small Jewish sect confined to the Middle East, had been transformed into a ‘Catholic Church’ which spanned the Roman world, with other believers spread far beyond.  The process which created a recognisable Church with a distinctive order and the beginnings of an agreed doctrine was far from straightforward or neat; many died, many were excluded, and even those who remained in the fold were transformed for ever.  As the key texts of the era are available in translation, students are able to explore these issues for themselves, with the aid of a lively modern historiography.

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RELI 0050 Augustine of Hippo
This course examines the life and thought of one of the giants of Western Church, Augustine of Hippo (died 430).  Born into a landowning family in Roman Africa, Augustine had the upbringing of his class, including a period as a member of the Manichean sect, various relationships, and a glittering career as a professor of rhetoric. After a mystical experience and under the influence of Bishop Ambrose of Milan, Augustine converted to Catholic Christianity, becoming a bishop within ten years just as the Roman Empire was noticeably disintegrating. His surviving works cover a huge range from doctrinal theses, sermons and Biblical exegesis to attacks on heretics and his

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RELI 0060 The Eastern Church, 325-843
This course explores the Greek-speaking church based in and around the eastern Roman Empire, in the period between the First Council of Nicaea in 325, and the so-called Triumph of Orthodoxy in 843.  It also considers relations with the Latin church, and Christian groups in the east that broke from imperial-sponsored orthodoxy.  During this period Ecumenical (or universal) Councils, along with numerous emperors, patriarchs, theologians and others strove to define the self-understanding of the Church.  It engages with primary sources in translation and a fine corpus of modern scholarly writing.

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RELI 0070 The Western Church in the Middle Ages
This course explores the history of the church in western Europe from the eleventh to fourteenth centuries.  In some senses the notion of 'the church' as a single entity is misleading: there were a series of different ecclesiastical institutions, often pursuing conflicting interests.  However, there was a strong cultural sense of 'the church', and in practical terms it became more unified under papal leadership in this era.  The period also saw tremendous creativity in pastoral care, monasticism, intellectual life, the crusades, the birth of the friars, and responses to heresy.

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RELI 0110 Medieval English Mystics
Some of the most profound and extraordinary spiritual works of the middle ages  were written in England during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.  A combination of often horrifically troubled times, the desire for new forms of religion and a new immediacy of relation with God, and socio-economic and literary change contributed to the complex and fascinating picture; but these mystics were very remarkable individuals in their own right, and advocated very different approaches to Christian living and experience.  This course therefore exploresnot only of their writings, but also of the context in which they arose.

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RELI 0130 Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation in sixteenth-century Europe saw fundamental Christian beliefs and practices challenged and overturned; a huge range of theological views gaining adherents; and much of the continent convulsed with warfare in the name of God. Change, challenge and innovation were emphatically not confined to areas we might today consider ‘religious’; the whole structure of politics and pattern of European life was profoundly reconfigured. This course explores both the ideas of the theologians and their impact in everyday life through a careful study of primary texts with the aid of a lively body of modern scholarship.

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RELI 0140 Catholic Reformation
The Catholic Church of the late middle ages was very far from the moribund monolith portrayed by its adversaries. It had a rich tradition on which to draw in responding to the changes of the early modern era; indeed Catholic theologians and ecclesiastics may have renewed the Church just as profoundly as their Protestant opponents.  New articulations of doctrine, new forms of the religious life, new devotional practices for the laity, and new approaches to the arts were all enthusiastically enjoined on the Catholic world. This period was thus one of the most dynamic in life of the Church.  

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RELI 0160 Classical Islam
This tutorial provide an overview of the thought and practice of classical Islam, from the seventh century through to the end of the medieval era.  Key topics include the Qu’ran, hadiths, law, philosophy and theology, as well as ritual and other elements of practice.  Readings for the tutorial include Arabic texts in English translation, and works of modern scholarship.

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RELI 0220 / HIST 0220 English Reformation
Although far from isolated from the revolutionary currents of religious thought and practice which shook contemporary Europe, the English Reformation followed a distinctive course in which the needs and desires of successive rulers were a crucial factor. Yet neither King Henry VIII, nor any of his three children who succeeded him, had things entirely their own way, and English religious life was also moulded from below. As well as studying contemporary theological and other texts, students in this course will explore political and social ramifications of religious change with the aid of flourishing modern scholarship. 

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CHNS 0010 Chinese
Tuition in Chinese can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on Chinese  for academic p...

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CMLT 0040 Medieval Latin
A study of the Latin language, beginning at the level which the student has already reached and based on the reading of a wide selection of medieval Latin prose and verse. It is possible to take this course at any language level: students’ level will be determined as part of the pre-arrival process.

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CMLT 0050/ENAM 0050 Introduction to Old English
This is an introduction to Old English language, including grammar, syntax and vocabulary, using readings from the corpus of Old English poetry and prose.

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CMLT 0055/ENAM 0055 Introduction to Middle English
This course studies selected verse and prose in Middle English, from the later middle ages.  These can include

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CMLT 0060/FREN 0060 Old French
This course studies the language of Old French, though medieval texts such as the 

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FREN 0010 French
Tuition in French can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on French for academic purposes, or on conversational French depending on what is required.

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GRMN 0010 German
Tuition in German can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on German for academic purposes, or on conversational German depending on what is required.

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GRMN 0070 / CMLT 0070 Middle High German

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HEBM 0100 Modern Hebrew
Tuition in modern Hebrew can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on conversation Hebre...

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HEBR 0100 Classical Hebrew
Classical Hebrew is offered at every level, including beginners.  It involves the study of grammar, syntax and readings from classical Hebrew texts.  The precise nature of the tutorial will depend on the skills and needs of each individual student.

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ITAL 0010 Italian
Tuition in Italian can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on reading or conversational Italian depending on what is required.

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JAPN 0010 Japanese
Tuition in Japanese can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on Japanese  for academic...

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PGSE 0010 Portuguese
Tuition in Portuguese can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on Portuguese for academi...

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RU 0010 Russian
Tuition in Russian can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on academic or conversational Russian depending on what is required.

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SPAN 0010 Spanish
Tuition in Spanish can be arranged to accommodate a wide range of needs and interests. For example, a stress can be laid on reading or conversational Spanish depending on what is required.

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CLAS 0030 Ancient Greek Literature
The course investigates the literature and culture of fifth-century Athens. Central concerns of this era – freedom and power, knowledge and virtue, law and nature, and the role of the divine – are studied through an analysis of history (Herodotus, Thucydides), tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides), comedy (Aristophanes), and philosophy (Plato).

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CLAS 0040 Greek Tragedy
An examination of selected tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, against the background of debates about freedom and empire in fifth-century BC Athens. The course studies the use of ancient myths to illuminate contemporary Athenian attitudes towards relations between the sexes, between the family and the city, and between humans and gods.

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CLAS 0050 Classical Epic
The classical epic tradition helped shape Greece and Rome, and remains a landmark in European civilization. The course provides a detailed analysis of Homer’s

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CLAS 0070 Classical Pastoral
This course explores the origins of the western pastoral tradition, by looking at those whom the English Renaissance poet Drayton called its ‘onlie begetters’. Greek poets include Theocritus, Bion and Moschus; their Latin counterparts Virgil and Calpurnius Siculus. This was the legacy which was bequeathed to the Renaissance pastoralists.

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ENAM 0010 Oratory
This course is intended for those who want to practise public speaking. The student works closely with the tutor on composing and delivering speeches and other modes of address related to speaking in public. Some study of the history of oratory is included, although the focus is on the nurturing and development of the student’s own skills and capacity to produce original work.

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ENAM 0020 Narrative
This is a creative writing course for those who want to write fiction. The student works closely with the tutor on composing prose narratives in either short or longer formats, with weekly writing assignments. Some reflection on the nature of fiction-writing is included, although the focus is on the nurturing and development of the student’s own skills and capacity to produce original work.

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ENAM 0030 Poetry
This course is intended for those who want to write poetry. The student works closely with the tutor on composing poetry on a weekly basis. Some reflection on the nature of poetic composition is included, although the focus is on the nurturing and development of the student’s own skills and capacity to produce original work.

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ENAM 0040 Drama
This is creative writing course for those who want to write drama. The student works closely with the tutor on producing dramatic writing, with special emphasis on designing plots, planning structure and executing dialogue for plays. Some study of the history of dramatic composition is included, although the focus is on the nurturing and development of the student’s own skills and capacity to produce original work.

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ENAM 0100 Old English Literature in Translation
The canon of Old English Literature comprises the earliest corpus of texts in the English literary tradition. This course studies a wide selection of translated texts in verse and prose forms, from the foundational epic achievement of Beowulf through to shorter lyrics, secular as well as sacred poetry, and historical prose narratives. 

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ENAM 0120 Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1340-c.1400) was the most important author to write in Middle English. This course explored works from all periods of his life, including celebrated classics such as

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ENAM 0125 Medieval English Drama
We are often told that drama before Shakespeare was stylized and dull. This tutorial explores a more positive approach to medieval Mystery Cycles and Morality Plays, and the early Tudor interludes.  This includes looking at the ways in which humour, violence, academic debate, and human tenderness combine in discussion of theological and ethical issues in both the spiritual and material realms. Drama before Shakespeare is in fact sophisticated and self-reflexive: before there were professional theatres, plays were performed in spaces both public and private but which were not exclusively “theatrical”, and this encouraged stagings which exploited the metatheatrical in ways which are often thought to have been discovered in the twentieth century. Medieval dramaturgy, far from being naive or dull, is well worth exploring.

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ENAM 0200 English Renaissance Literature
This tutorial examines the literature of the English renaissance of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.  It explores works of 

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ENAM 0210 Shakespeare I: Histories and Comedies
The course presented a detailed study of Shakespeare’s most important history plays and comedies. Close textual analysis of the individual dramas, in terms of structure and thematic content, was allied to a survey of their wider role in the entire Shakespearian corpus and to the history of English literature at this crucial phase of its development.

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ENAM 0212 Shakespeare II: Tragedies & Romances
The course presents a detailed study of Shakespeare’s most important tragedies and romances. Close textual analysis of the individual dramas, in terms of structure and thematic content, is allied to a survey of their wider role in the wider Shakespearian corpus, and in the history of English literature at this crucial phase of its development.

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ENAM 0245/GSFS 0245 Women & Literature in the English Renaissance
This course examines women writers of the English Renaissance, with reference to elsewhere in Europe.  

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ENAM 0250 Women & Literature, 1660-1800
This course examines English women writers of the long eighteenth century.  This era saw an increasing role for women in the genres of poetry, drama, fiction, journals and memoirs.  It is studied through important figures such as Aphra Behn, Mary Wortley Montagu, Hannah More, Joanna Baillie, Maria Edgeworth and Ann Radcliffe.  

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ENAM 0260 Milton
John Milton (1608-1674) remains

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ENAM 0350 Eighteenth-Century Fiction
During the eighteenth century, the new form of writing known as the novel emerged as a distinct element in English literature. As a genre, it has gone on to assume huge and central cultural importance. The course explores the first great practitioners of the novel, examining their fictions in wider literary and cultural context.

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ENAM 0355 Eighteenth-Century Poetry and Drama
The dramatic modes, styles and intentions of the long eighteenth century are properly initiated in the years following the Restoration of 1660. As the Augustan era moved into the age of sensibility and pre-romanticism, the poets and playwrights of the eighteenth century responded to the evolving manners and concerns of their age with wit, style and charm, sometimes lyric, sometimes satiric, producing some of the most memorable literature in the English language.

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ENAM 0360 Romanticism
This course explores Romanticism in English literature, especially poetry.  

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ENAM 0370 Nineteenth-Century Fiction
The nineteenth century was the period in which the English novel came of age, rising to unheard-of prominence as a means of scrutinising the era in all its evolving facets, and running the full gamut of comic to tragic in the process.  While in many sense the novel was dominant, publishing strategies were fluid. Novels were published in periodical form, as well as single volumes, while short stories and other fictional forms also flourished in this era.  Students can take the opportunity to examine these forms in addition to the novel.

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ENAM 0400 Jane Austen
Despite her relatively short life, the six major novels written by Jane Austen (1775-1817) have secured her standing as one of the most significant – and best-loved – of English novelists. This course situates her work within wider historical and literary contexts, making reference to the Gothic and epistolary traditions, Romanticism, the French Revolution, and Mary Wollstonecraft’s proto-feminism. It complicates assumptions about Austen’s politics, encouraging students to read her as a subversive and innovative author, and asks questions about her style. In addition to the novels, this course also looks at Austen’s earliest work (unpublished during her lifetime), and her more recent cultural legacies.

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ENAM 0420 Poetry of the Victorian Era
The course explores the development of English poetry in the Victorian era, from its beginnings in the wake of the Romantic movement, through a variety of modes, types and genres, up to the

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ENAM 0550 Twentieth-Century British Poetry
The course ranges widely among the riches and complexities of British poetry in the twentieth century. In the modern age the variety of modes and types in which poets found their individual voices expanded to a vast degree, responding in manifold ways to the crises, tribulations and landmarks of the period. Poets are studied for their own particular nuances and characteristics, and for their larger contribution to modern British culture.

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ENAM 0555 Twentieth-Century British Fiction
The thematic and stylistic concerns of British fiction underwent broad transformations in the twentieth century, in response to the changing and often troubling circumstances of the age. The works of individual novelists are closely examined from the perspective of content, structure and style, and are assessed in terms of the larger developments in culture and society in which they played a role.

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ENAM 0560 The Inklings
C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and Charles Williams were at the centre of the Inklings, a group of friends who met every week in Oxford between the early 1930s and the 1950s to read one another their latest writings, to share ideas, and to enjoy good food and drink. This course was a detailed investigation of the Inklings, their work and the contribution it made to literature, philosophy and religion.

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LIT/30 The Courtly Romances
The courtly romances of the Middle Ages were vernacular expressions of the ideals and conventions of the wider cultural tradition of courtly love. Wi...

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LITS 0120 Viking Literature and Culture
This course explores the legacy of Viking literature, ranging from mythology to heroic legend, and includes an analysis of wider history and culture through readings of Old Norse and Icelandic texts in translation. Topics include the Poetic Edda, skaldic poetry, the world of Snorri Sturlson, the legendary sagas and the Icelandic family sagas.

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LITS 0130/GSFS 0130 Women & Literature in the Middle Ages
This course examines the presentation of women in literature, and writing by women, during the western European middle ages.  It explores poetry, prose and drama, from the Virgin Mary to the Wife of Bath, and studies the writings of Héloise, Margaret Paston, Margery Kempe, Julian of Norwich and Christine de Pizan.

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LITS 0140 The Medieval Tale
Medieval literature is rich in short tales, romances,

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LITS 0150 Medieval Romance
The core of this examination of medieval

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LITS 0160 Courtly Love
Courtly love was a medieval literary convention which articulated chivalrous love, yearning and desire. The course covers literature in the European courtly love tradition, from the twelfth to fourteenth centuries. It examines the genres and forms in which courtly love found expression (principally lyrics, romances and allegories), and evolution within those genres.  Texts are studied in translation from Latin, Occitan, Old French, Middle High German, and Italian.

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LITS 0170 Medieval Travel Writing
This course examines examples of travel writing from various medieval European languages. Medieval people travelled widely, for a variety of reasons: trade, diplomacy, religious pilgrimage, the lure of the unknown. Some wrote fascinating accounts of their travels and adventures. These narratives are accompanied by accounts of purely imaginary voyages, and of fantastical peoples, kingdoms and marvels. 

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LITS 0180 Chivalric Literature
During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, chivalry developed as a distinct set of sensibilities within the western European elite.  Chivalric values were martial, Christian, noble, and masculine.  They did not remain static, but over time became increasingly highly elaborated, more courtly, and more intensely Christian.  These social and cultural attitudes were formulated, explored and at times critiqued in the epic and romance vernacular literature of this period, in particular the Arthurian cycle, and the Matter of France.  This course explores that literature in social and cultural context.

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LITS 0190 Chrétien de Troyes
Chrétien de Troyes is celebrated as the greatest writer of twelfth-century French Arthurian Romances, and his influence on the subsequent evolution of the Arthurian Romance tradition was vast. The course examines his writings in depth, with particular reference to form and content, and identifies him as an important player in the courtly culture of medieval France as well as a literary eminence.

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LITS 0310 Comedy
The course explores the many types, styles and intentions of comedy in the western European literary tradition, from the earliest Greek and Roman examples of the genre, through the transformations made in the Renaissance by Shakespeare, to the ‘classical’ variants found in Jonson and Molière. Individual works are studied for their own merits as well as the light they shed on the evolution of comedy as a force in culture.

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LITS 0320 Tragedy
The course explores the nature and forms of tragedy – one of the foundational literary modes of western culture since antiquity. From the earliest statements about tragic theory as set down by Aristotle and embodied in Greek drama, to a reconsideration of tragedy during the English and French Renaissance, key examples of the form are studied in order to ascertain the meaning of tragedy and the various ways in which it sought expression.

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RELI 0110 Medieval English Mystics
Some of the most profound and extraordinary spiritual works of the middle ages  were written in England during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.  A combination of often horrifically troubled times, the desire for new forms of religion and a new immediacy of relation with God, and socio-economic and literary change contributed to the complex and fascinating picture; but these mystics were very remarkable individuals in their own right, and advocated very different approaches to Christian living and experience.  This course therefore exploresnot only of their writings, but also of the context in which they arose.

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MUSC 0010 Exploring Western Music
A study and critical analysis of the major genres of Western music from the Renaissance to the present day, including the Mass, oratorio, opera, symphony and song. Full use is made of Oxford’s rich musical life, and historical and artistic resources.

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MUSC 0020 Music and Liturgy: From Medieval to Tudor
The course explores the role of music in the Christian tradition, from plainsong and monastic chant through the events of the English Reformation and the radical changes made to church music in the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

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MUSC 0030 Madrigals, Songs and Airs of Renaissance Courts
We examine the relationship between music, literature and the other arts in the courtly culture of Renaissance England. Composers such as Dowland, and courtier-poets such as Greville, Dyer and the Earl of Essex are studied in their collaborations and interrelations.

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MUSC/04 Music in the Grand Manner: Purcell to Handel
This course studies choral, operatic and instrumental development in composition and performance in the 17th and 18th century. The co-dependence of music and drama, from Purcell’s work with Dryden to Handel’s with John Gay, forms the heart of the course.

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PHIL 0010 Classical Philosophy
This course charts the development of classical western philosophy from the Athenians to Augustine of Hippo, exploring the principal writers in their intellectual and historical context. At the core of this course is reading key works in translation.  The cornerstones of the western intellectual tradition are scrutinised in terms of the specific questions they address, and read as part of a continuing narrative in philosophical culture.

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PHIL 0020 Medieval Philosophy
The course is designed for those wishing to understand the metaphysics, ethics and philosophical theology of the Middle Ages. The key-works of leading western thinkers, from Augustine to Ockham, are scrutinized against the background of Scholastic philosophy, so that the intellectual underpinnings of the era can be examined in terms of the influences on them, and the influence they in turn exerted.

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PHIL 0030 Enlightenment Philosophy
This course explores the philosophy of the European Enlightenment. The impact of the Enlightenment, as a radical re-examination of core beliefs and the best role to be played in them by the rational mind, is still being felt today. This course explores the concepts which framed Enlightenment philosophy, and the key thinkers who originated them.

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PHIL 0050 Ethics & the Good Life
As one of the primary areas of philosophical investigation, Ethics has remained at the forefront of western thought since antiquity, and its importance in informing moral behaviour through the ages has been vast. This course explores various modes of moral reasoning, drawing on central contributions to the field from the time of Aristotle through to the Enlightenment.

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PHIL 0110 Modern Political Philosophy
This course critically examines the meaning and political significance of some of the key concepts and values discussed by modern political philosophers, including: power, political authority, democracy, justice, equality, liberty and autonomy. It covers the key works of some major philosophers – including John Rawls, Robert Nozick and Ronald Dworkin – as well as trends in modern socialist and feminist thought.  

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PHIL 0120 Philosophy of Religion
This course explores some of the key philosophical issues surrounding belief in God and religious faith. Some topics focus on debates about the nature of God, in particular the claims that God is omnipotent, omniscient and morally perfect. Arguments for the existence and non-existence of God will also be considered. Further topics include the nature of religious faith, the evidential force of miracles, and philosophical issues arising from the fact of religious diversity.  

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PHIL 0130 Epistemology
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that examines questions about knowledge, justification, belief and related concepts. This course addresses questions about how we should understand knowledge and justification as well as what, if anything, it is possible for us to know, with particular emphasis on the challenge posed by philosophical scepticism. Finally, this course examines philosophical issues concerning perceptual knowledge,

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PHIL 0140 Metaphysics
Metaphysicians explore some of the most basic and fundamental issues in philosophy. One central topic in this course focuses on realism and its alternatives; a debate that examines the extent to which the world is independent of our cognition of it. A number of key topics concern persons and agency, including: the nature of persons; the persistence of persons over time; and whether we possess freedom of the will. The course also covers philosophical questions concerning time, properties and universals, and composition and mereology. 

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PHIL 0150 Ethics
This course examines a variety of normative ethical theories including varieties of consequentialism, virtue ethics and contractualism, together with related concepts including happiness, well-being, rights and equality. Alongside these theories, there will be a chance to study debates in applied ethics, including medical ethics. Part of the course is also devoted to metaethical issues, including debates about the nature of moral properties, whether moral claims are true or false and how, if at all, it is possible to acquire moral knowledge.   

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PHIL 0160 Philosophy of Language
This course focuses on philosophical questions concerning linguistic meaning, the use of language, and the relationship between language and reality. It explores different theories of meaning (that is, theories about in virtue of what certain physical marks and noises have distinctive meanings). Alongside this, the course examines philosophical questions concerning truth, names, definite descriptions, metaphor and pragmatics. These themes encompass the work of some of the most important analytic philosophers.

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PHIL 0170 Philosophy of Mind
Philosophers of mind explore the nature of mental phenomena and the relationship they bear to the rest of reality. This course considers a variety of theories about the relation between the mind and body, as well as philosophical issues concerning the nature of consciousness, perception, imagination, emotion and intentionality. Alongside this there is an opportunity to consider epistemological questions, such as: how do we acquire knowledge of other people’s minds? Do we have privileged knowledge of our own minds? 

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RELI 0050 Augustine of Hippo
This course examines the life and thought of one of the giants of Western Church, Augustine of Hippo (died 430).  Born into a landowning family in Roman Africa, Augustine had the upbringing of his class, including a period as a member of the Manichean sect, various relationships, and a glittering career as a professor of rhetoric. After a mystical experience and under the influence of Bishop Ambrose of Milan, Augustine converted to Catholic Christianity, becoming a bishop within ten years just as the Roman Empire was noticeably disintegrating. His surviving works cover a huge range from doctrinal theses, sermons and Biblical exegesis to attacks on heretics and his

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PSCI 0010 Themes and Issues in Political Theory
This course investigates the background of central issues and questions in the history of the state: the genesis and formation of institutions which continue to be central to political thought today. Foundational texts from antiquity to the nineteenth century are studied in detail as political artefacts and as staging-posts in the development of enduring concepts.

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PSCI 0045 Political Theory: Enlightenment and Romanticism
The legacy of Enlightenment and Romantic theorists has left an indelible mark on western political thinking. This course begins with an analysis of enlightened rationalism, and traces the debate between its concomitant political ideas  through to the full-blown radicalism and revolutionary Romanticism of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

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HIST 0210/RELI 0210 Medieval Monasticism
This course examines medieval monasticism in religious and historical context. From origins in late antiquity, monasticism became one of the central expressions of medieval Christianity.   The ‘long twelfth century’ was an especially important period, as international  monastic orders such as the Carthusians and Cistercians developed for the first time. Monks and nuns sought to renounce the temptations of the material world by withdrawing into lives of poverty and celibacy.  They were distinct from wider Christian society, yet also focal points for lay devotion,  Major monasteries became important centres of political and economic power.  Many of the most important intellectual figures of the middle ages were monks or nuns.  Students are able to use the numerous sources (in translation) produced by and about medieval monasticism, as well as the rich modern scholarship on the subject. 

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RELI 0010 Old Testament Studies
This course explores the historical, literary and theological issues pertinent to a scholarly understanding of the Old Testament (as it is described in the Christian tradition), otherwise known as the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh.  This is a remarkable collection of books, spanning law, history, wisdom and prophecy, and ranging in date from perhaps the eighth to the first centuries B.C. It contains some of the most sublime poetry known to humankind, and some of its earthiest history. Millions of people have based their lives upon its teachings, and many outstanding scholars have devoted their lives to its exposition. 

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RELI 0020 New Testament Studies
This course explores 

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RELI 0080 Early Christian Mystical Theology
The theologians and ecclesiastics of the first Christian centuries drew on deep wells of Biblical writing and Greek philosophy, as well as the most intense forms of personal experience, when they sought direct and individual engagement with their God.  One result was a remarkably rich, sophisticated and compelling literature which has helped to shape Christian life and theology in every century to the present. Careful exploration of  context and text together allows students to trace these spiritual pioneers.

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RELI 0220 / HIST 0220 English Reformation
Although far from isolated from the revolutionary currents of religious thought and practice which shook contemporary Europe, the English Reformation followed a distinctive course in which the needs and desires of successive rulers were a crucial factor. Yet neither King Henry VIII, nor any of his three children who succeeded him, had things entirely their own way, and English religious life was also moulded from below. As well as studying contemporary theological and other texts, students in this course will explore political and social ramifications of religious change with the aid of flourishing modern scholarship. 

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HEBR 0100 Classical Hebrew
Classical Hebrew is offered at every level, including beginners.  It involves the study of grammar, syntax and readings from classical Hebrew texts.  The precise nature of the tutorial will depend on the skills and needs of each individual student.

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Some of the best fun I'd had
CMRS was one of the most challenging options I could have chosen for my study abroad experience, but was also without a doubt the most rewarding. It c...
Ross McIntire, Autumn Semester 2009, Carleton College